The pope and Erdogan previously met in Turkey in 2014.
Along with Erdoğan, Pope Francis was among the prominent global leaders criticizing the United States' decision last December to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital.
At the conclusion of the 50-minute audience, lengthy by papal standards, Francis presented President Recep Tayyip Erdogan with a medallion depicting an "angel of peace" strangling the "demon of war".
A Kurdish association in Italy organized a sit-in protest by 200 people near the Vatican.
After the Vatican, Erdogan met in the presidential palace of the Quirinale Italian President Sergio Mattarella with whom he had "respectful and frank" talks, sources said.
It is the first such visit by a Turkish leader for 59 years.
The two leaders had "cordial discussions" on the situation in Turkey, the condition of the Catholic community there, and Turkey's efforts in receiving and hosting refugees, according to a Vatican statement. The sources said that long-standing positions were reiterated, Italy's in line with those of the European Union, in relation to the main issues on the agenda. "This gift symbolizes a world based on peace and justice".
The Vatican is in favor of a two-state solution to the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians and hopes that both sides reach a consensus on the status of Jerusalem - which houses sacred sites for Muslims, Jews and Christians.
Anti-Erdogan demonstrators took to the streets of Rome during the visit, with at least one person injured and two arrested in scuffles with the security forces. Rome also issued a 24-hour ban on demonstrations.
Erdoğan was also expected to meet with Cardinal Pietro Parolin, the Vatican's secretary of state.
Far-right Brothers of Italy party also protested, expressing on Twitter their stand against "Turkey in Europe".
He said the whole Pakistani nation stood with the oppressed Kashmiri people and was showing complete solidarity with them. "But they do not have the strength to separate Kashmir from us", said Rajnath Singh during a public rally here.
The 31-year-old model and actress, who is pregnant with her first child , was not in the room at the time of the incident. Clearly I had to do some work on myself first, ' the Full House alum told People in December.
China "has always kept its own nuclear forces at the minimum level required by national security", Mr Ren said. Zarif said the new policy was "in violation" of the worldwide Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
A separate South Korean defense official told CNN the joint exercises would not be scaled back despite the unusual delay. Torture and imprisonment is standard, and some North Koreans are publicly executed, Lee said she would tell Trump.
Do keep in mind that all seven of the previous Brady/Belichick Patriots Super Bowls have been decided by a touchdown or less. It wasn't a surprise when Tom Brady was named The Associated Press' NFL MVP on Saturday night at the annual NFL Honors show.
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